Hemodynamic and neural mechanisms of action of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the rat.
The mechanisms mediating the effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the cardiovascular system were studied in the conscious rat. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of TRH (8 pmol-80 nmol/kg) induced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac index. Hindquarter blood flow increased due to vasodilation, while an increase in renal and mesenteric vascular resistance caused a decrease in blood flow in the respective organs. The plasma levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine were increased by TRH, while there was no change in plasma renin activity or vasopressin. The cardiovascular actions of i.c.v. TRH were not influenced by blockade of the renin-angiotensin system or vasopressin receptors. The ganglion blocker chlorisondamine and the alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist phentolamine (2 mg/kg i.v.) abolished the increase in blood pressure and mesenteric vasoconstriction after i.c.v. TRH. Propranolol (2 mg/kg i.v.) blocked the TRH-induced increase in cardiac index, heart rate, and hindquarter blood flow. The hindquarter vasodilation induced by TRH was also blocked by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 188,551 (1 or 2 mg/kg i.v.), while the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol (10 mg/kg i.v.) had no effect on the hindquarter vasodilation produced by TRH but totally blocked the increase in cardiac index. In adrenal demedullated rats, the systemic hemodynamic effects of i.c.v. TRH were diminished along with the decrease in renal blood flow and increase in renal vascular resistance; however, the increase in hindquarter blood flow was attenuated only in adrenal demedullated rats pretreated with the sympathetic blocker bretylium. The renal vasoconstriction induced by i.c.v. TRH was not abolished by renal denervation. In sinoaortic debuffered rats, the pressor, tachycardic, and mesenteric vasoconstrictor responses to centrally administered TRH were significantly potentiated. Taken together, these data suggest that the putative neurotransmitter TRH may play a role in central regulation of cardiac functions and organ blood flow distribution through both the sympathetic nerves and the adrenal medulla. A pivotal role for beta 2-adrenoceptors in mediation of hindquarter vasodilation is also demonstrated.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association