Protection by verapamil of mitochondrial glutathione equilibrium and phospholipid changes during reperfusion of ischemic canine myocardium.
Pretreatment of the ischemic myocardium with verapamil protects against mitochondrial respiratory depression observed during ischemic arrest as well as during reperfusion. Since ischemic mitochondrial function appears not to be altered further by reperfusion, the purpose of this study is to identify a biochemical event affecting mitochondria that is specifically associated with reperfusion injury. It has been proposed that increased cellular Ca2+ influx and oxygen toxicity may result from reintroduction of coronary flow. Increased cytosolic Ca2+ is transmitted to the mitochondria with subsequent activation of Ca2+-dependent events, including phospholipase A2. Net production of lysophospholipids (and loss of total diacylphospholipids from the mitochondria) will proceed when reacylation mechanisms are inhibited. Since acyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferase is a sulfhydryl-sensitive enzyme and since increased activity of glutathione peroxidase shifts the levels of the mitochondrial sulfhydryl buffer, glutathione, towards oxidation, levels of glutathione and its oxidation state were measured during reperfusion in the absence or presence of verapamil pretreatment. Ischemia lowers total glutathione and reduces the redox ratio (reduced glutathione: oxidized glutathione) by 85%. Reperfusion partially returns the redox ratio to control by causing oxidized glutathione to disappear from the matrix. Verapamil maintains both the concentration and the redox potential of glutathione at control levels. Concomitant with alterations in reduced glutathione:oxidized glutathione is a decrease in ischemic mitochondrial phospholipid content. During reperfusion, phosphatidylethanolamine and its major constituent fatty acids (C 18:0 and C 20:4) are specifically lost from the mitochondrial membrane. Accompanying the significant loss of arachidonic acid during reperfusion is the decreased content of 11-OH, 12-OH, and 15-OH arachidonate. These lipid peroxidation products are not increased in ischemia. It is proposed that oxidation of matrix glutathione to glutathione disulfide during ischemia results in formation of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides and inhibition of sulfhydryl-sensitive proteins, including acyl-CoA lysophosphatide acyltransferase. Thus, metabolic events occurring within the ischemic period set the stage for prolonged dysfunction during reperfusion.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association