Nonexocytotic release of endogenous noradrenaline in the ischemic and anoxic rat heart: mechanism and metabolic requirements.
The release of endogenous noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolite dihydroxyphenylglycol in the myocardium have been studied in the isolated perfused heart of the rat subjected to three models of energy depletion: ischemia, anoxia, and cyanide intoxication. Anoxia and cyanide intoxication were combined with substrate deficiency at constant perfusion flow. All three energy-depleting procedures caused a similar overflow of noradrenaline which, following a constant delay of 10 minutes without increased release, amounted to more than 25% of total heart content within 40 minutes. This noradrenaline overflow was not diminished in the absence of extracellular calcium and was inhibited by the uptake1 blocker desipramine in all three experimental models, indicating a common and nonexocytotic release mechanism. In the presence of glucose, neither anoxia nor cyanide intoxication resulted in a measurable noradrenaline overflow. Conversely, blockade of glycolysis or glucose depletion prior to ischemia or cyanide poisoning accelerated the noradrenaline overflow, demonstrating a key role of the sympathetic nerve cells' energy status in causing nonexocytotic catecholamine release. Blockade of energy metabolism in the presence of oxygen (cyanide model) resulted in the overflow of high amounts of dihydroxyphenylglycol that was not inhibited by uptake1 blockade. The release of the lipophilic dihydroxyphenylglycol by diffusion reflects deamination of axoplasmic noradrenaline by monoamine oxidase. Since saturation of the enzyme could be excluded in this model dihydroxyphenylglycol release can be taken as a mirror of cytoplasmic noradrenaline concentration. The results obtained by these studies indicate that nonexocytotic catecholamine release is a two-step process induced by energy deficiency in the sympathetic varicosity. In a first step, noradrenaline is lost from storage vesicles, resulting in increasing axoplasmic concentrations. The second step is the rate-limiting transport of intracellular noradrenaline across the cell membrane by the uptake1 carrier that has reversed its normal net transport direction.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association