Influences on the distribution of blood flow during cardiac tamponade in the conscious dog.
Cardiac tamponade is a spectrum ranging from pericardial effusions with minimal hemodynamic impairment to effusions causing circulatory collapse. In this study, we examined the roles played by the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system in controlling the distribution of blood flow in chronically instrumented conscious dogs during progressive cardiac tamponade. Fifty-one episodes of acute cardiac tamponade were induced to decompensation (decline in mean aortic blood pressure to 70% of the level present when the pericardium was free of fluid) in 6 dogs by intrapericardial infusion of warmed saline solution. Cardiac output (electromagnetic flow probe), intrapericardial pressure, aortic and right atrial blood pressures, and renal, coronary, and mesenteric artery blood flows (Doppler flow probes) were recorded during tamponade in the absence of blockade (control), during alpha-adrenergic blockade (phenoxybenzamine), beta-adrenergic blockade (propranolol), or angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade (captopril). Aortic and mesenteric artery blood flow decreased progressively during cardiac tamponade regardless of the presence or absence of blockade. Coronary artery blood flow did not significantly change during alpha-adrenergic blockade, suggesting that the continuous decline observed during cardiac tamponade in the absence of blockade was at least in part mediated by alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. Renal artery blood flow, in contrast, was well maintained in all situations, confirming the importance of autoregulation in this vascular bed during cardiac tamponade.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association