Three forms of xanthine: acceptor oxidoreductase in rat heart.
The enzyme xanthine: acceptor oxidoreductase found in rat heart equilibrates between three forms differing in electron acceptor specificity. Form D transfers electrons exclusively to NAD+ and accounts for 85% of total oxidoreductase activity. Form O transfers electrons to molecular oxygen and accounts for 8%. The D/O form prefers NAD+, but without NAD+ transfers electrons to oxygen. Interconversion from D to O and O to D forms is catalyzed by sulfhydryl group-modifying reagents: Cd2+, Cu2+, disulfiram, and heating with dithiothreitol. This suggests that sulfhydryl groups participate in the first stage of enzyme conversion. The NADH/NAD+ concentration ratio may regulate the dehydrogenase activity of xanthine:acceptor oxidoreductase (NAD+-dependent activity of D and D/O forms). Accumulating NADH inhibits hypoxanthine hydroxylation. The amount of form O increases during cardiac ischemia, facilitating superoxide radical-ion generation. Also, NADH/NAD+ does not regulate form O, promoting adenylate nucleotide pool depletion, especially in the heart which has low de novo purine nucleotide synthesis.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association