Acute alterations in diastolic left ventricular chamber distensibility: mechanistic differences between hypoxemia and ischemia in isolated perfused rabbit and rat hearts.
Changes in diastolic chamber distensibility (DCD) during hypoxemia and ischemia were studied in isolated-buffer-perfused rabbit hearts. Two minutes of hypoxemia (low PO2 coronary flow) resulted in a shift of the diastolic pressure-volume curve to the left, i.e., distensibility was decreased (hypoxemic contracture). In contrast, 2 minutes of ischemia (zero coronary flow) resulted in an initial shift of the diastolic pressure-volume curve to the right indicating increased distensibility, which was followed by a later (30 minutes) shift to the left (ischemic contracture). Two minutes of ischemia superimposed on hypoxemia caused complete reversal of contracture. A quick stretch and release applied to the myocardium reversed late ischemic contracture but did not effect early hypoxemic contracture. The role of intracellular pH in modulating changes in DCD during hypoxia and ischemia was studied using phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of isolated-buffer-perfused rat hearts that demonstrated changes in DCD similar to rabbit hearts during hypoxemia and ischemia. Intracellular pH decreased from 7.03 +/- 0.02 to 6.87 +/- 0.03 (p less than .01) during 2 minutes of ischemia but did not change significantly during 4 minutes of hypoxemia. When 2 minutes of ischemia were superimposed on hypoxemia, pH decreased from 6.99 +/- 0.01 during hypoxemia to 6.88 +/- 0.02 after 2 minutes of ischemia (p less than .01), concomitant with the complete reversal of hypoxemic contracture. These results suggest different mechanisms for late ischemic and early hypoxemic contracture and also suggest an explanation for the opposite initial changes in DCD seen after brief periods of ischemia and hypoxemia. The early development of contracture during hypoxemia and rapid redevelopment of diastolic tension after quick stretching are consistent with the hypothesis that hypoxemic contracture results from persistent Ca++-activated diastolic tension secondary to impaired calcium resequestration by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, the late development of contracture during global ischemia and reversal by quick stretching is compatible with rigor bond formation. The initial increase in distensibility during early ischemia and the reversal of hypoxemic contracture by a brief period of superimposed ischemia probably is the result of two factors present during ischemia but not during hypoxemia: the collapse of the coronary vasculature and loss of the "erectile" effect and, the rapid development of intracellular acidosis, which has been shown to affect myofibrillar calcium sensitivity, and this may lead to a decrease in Ca++ activated diastolic tension.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association