Prevention of transcoronary macromolecular leakage after ischemia-reperfusion by the calcium entry blocker nisoldipine. Direct observations in isolated rat hearts.
Coronary microvascular damage appears to play a role in reperfusion injury after myocardial ischemia. This study was designed to afford direct viewing of the effects of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion on the coronary microcirculation and to determine whether pretreatment with the calcium blocker nisoldipine would attenuate any microvascular damage during reperfusion. Four groups of isolated rat hearts were perfused with a solution that contained red cells and fluorescent albumin, but was essentially free of platelets and leukocytes. Group I served as a nonischemic control. Group II hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of no-flow ischemia followed by reperfusion. Group III hearts were pretreated with nisoldipine (1 microgram/min) for 5 minutes before ischemia, and group IV hearts were treated with nitroglycerin (93 micrograms/min) before and after ischemia to mimic the vasodilation caused by nisoldipine. Perfused coronary capillarity and transcoronary extravasation of plasma albumin were measured by direct visualization techniques before and after ischemia. For group I, there was no significant change in coronary resistance, perfused capillarity, or transcoronary extravasation with time. For both groups II and IV, ischemia-reperfusion caused no increase in coronary resistance, but a significant decrease in perfused capillarity and a marked increase in transcoronary extravasation of fluorescent albumin (P less than 0.05). The nisoldipine group (group III) demonstrated a similar decrease in perfused capillarity but no increase in protein extravasation during reperfusion. These results indicate that, in the heart, platelets and/or leukocytes are not absolutely necessary to induce either the no-reflow phenomenon or the permeability damage observed during reperfusion after ischemia. The protective effect of treatment with nisoldipine appeared to be independent of vasodilation. We speculate that this calcium blocker reduced endothelial uptake of calcium during reperfusion, preventing endothelial deformation and formation of interendothelial gaps.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association