Ventricular trabeculations in the chick embryo heart and their contribution to ventricular and muscular septal development.
Sixty-two chick embryo hearts were studied at incremental stages of development (Hamburger-Hamilton stages 16 to 39) by scanning electron microscopy following 3% glutaraldehyde fixation and critical point drying. Early in cardiac development, the primitive ventricle becomes homogeneously trabeculated with highly organized sheets of myocytes lined by endocardial cells, with the trabeculae generally oriented in the dorsoventral direction. Coalescence of these trabecular sheets begins at stage 26, initially at the area of the bulboventricular flange, and later proceeding caudally toward the floor of the ventricle. The fusion process is finished by stage 30, resulting in a muscular ventricular septum that has now divided the primitive ventricle into right and left ventricles. Further growth of the ventricular septum is by continued fusion of the adjoining trabecular sheets. Remnants of the apposing trabecular sheets are found in the solidified muscular septum in the form of endocardial channels. We suggest that persistent patency of these channels results in muscular ventricular septal defects.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association