Effect of alteration of left ventricular activation sequence on the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation in closed-chest dogs.
We investigated the effect of pacing from the atrium and various ventricular sites on the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation following autonomic blockade in a total of 10 dogs chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure and determine left ventricular volume from three ultrasonic endocardial dimensions. During ventricular pacing, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and end-systolic pressure were decreased, while the end-systolic volume was relatively unchanged. Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations were generated by vena caval occlusions during pacing at a constant rate from the left atria, and the epicardium of the right ventricular free wall, right ventricular apex, and left ventricular free wall. The left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations were described by straight lines for each site (r greater than 0.96 and SEE less than 2.9 mm Hg in all but one instance). Compared to atrial pacing, the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations were shifted (P less than 0.001) to the right during pacing from ventricular sites. During atrial pacing, the volume intercept of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation was 16.0 +/- 7.2 ml (mean +/- SD), and increased to 18.7 +/- 7.8 ml (P less than 0.05) during pacing from the right ventricular free wall, to 19.6 +/- 7.7 ml (P less than 0.05) during pacing from the right ventricular apex, and to 20.0 +/- 7.5 ml (P less than 0.05) during pacing from the left ventricular free wall. These volume intercepts correlated roughly with the extent of dyssynchronous activation as estimated by the QRS duration (r = 0.59 to 0.93) and the time for left ventricular endocardial activation (r = 0.92 and 0.95). During ventricular pacing, the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation changed only slightly. Similar results were obtained during pacing from right ventricular endocardial sites. We conclude that alterations of the normal activation sequence produced by ventricular pacing depress left ventricular pumping function independent of loading conditions, as indicated by a rightward shift of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation. The extent of this shift appears to be in proportion to the degree of dyssynchronous activation. The decreased stroke volume during ventricular pacing is due both to a decreased end-diastolic volume (decreased preload) and the rightward shift of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (decreased pump function).
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association