Mechanisms of supersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines in the chronically denervated heart of the conscious dog.
Mechanisms of denervation supersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines were studied in conscious animals. Norepinephrine, 0.1 micrograms/kg, increased left ventricular dP/dt significantly more (4208 +/- 828 mm Hg/sec) in dogs with cardiac denervation than in intact dogs (1029 +/- 280 mm Hg/sec), P less than 0.01, whereas responses to isoproterenol were similar in both groups. Denervation supersensitivity to isoproterenol could be demonstrated only after opposing reflex effects were blocked. After ganglionic blockade, norepinephrine still induced 2- to 3-fold greater increases in left ventricular dP/dt and 3- to 7-fold greater increases in heart rate in cardiac-denervated dogs, whereas isoproterenol and prenalterol, not taken up by presynaptic nerve endings, elicited only 40%-50% greater increases in left ventricular dP/dt and heart rate in dogs with cardiac denervation. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors [( 3H]dihydroalprenolol) was elevated (P less than 0.01) in denervated left ventricles (105 +/- 6.9 fmol/mg protein, n = 8) compared to normal left ventricles (70 +/- 6.3 fmol/mg protein, n = 12). This was accompanied by enhanced isoproterenol-mediated adenylate cyclase activity. However, muscarinic cholinergic receptor density, [( 3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate), decreased from control levels of 251 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein (n = 7) to 193 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein (n = 6). Thus, chronic cardiac denervation results in upregulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor and down-regulation of the muscarinic receptor. The increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and adenylate cyclase stimulation correlated well with the amount of denervation supersensitivity to isoproterenol and prenalterol, but accounted for only a minor fraction of denervation supersensitivity to norepinephrine. The major mechanism of denervation supersensitivity to norepinephrine appears to involve lack of the norepinephrine reuptake.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association