Sodium pump inhibition, enhanced calcium influx via sodium-calcium exchange, and positive inotropic response in cultured heart cells.
The effects of sodium pump inhibition produced by exposure to the cardiac glycosides, ouabain or dihydroouabain, or by reduction in extracellular potassium to 1.0 mM, on contractile state and sodium-calcium exchange were studied in primary monolayer cultures of chick embryo ventricular cells. Ouabain, 10(-6)M, dihydroouabain, 5 X 10(-5)M, and extracellular potassium of 1.0 mM all induced similar and prominent positive inotropic effects. These effects were accompanied, in each case, by 40-50% inhibition of the rate of active uptake of 42K and by similar increases in steady state sodium content. Stimulation of the rate of 45Ca uptake on exposure to zero extracellular sodium occurred in response to extracellular potassium (1.0 mM) or to glycoside concentrations that induced a positive inotropic effect and sodium-potassium pump inhibition. Reactivation of the sodium pump after return from 1.0 to 4.0 mM extracellular potassium was rapid and was associated with membrane hyperpolarization and slowing of spontaneous beating rate. With pump reactivation under these circumstances, the time course of disappearance of stimulation of sodium-calcium exchange on exposure to zero extracellular sodium was similar to the time course of loss of the positive inotropic effect. Under physiological conditions (4.0 mM extracellular potassium), exposure to positively inotropic but nontoxic concentrations of ouabain or dihydroouabain caused a small but consistent increase in unidirectional calcium influx, but had no discernible effect on calcium efflux. Since similar inotropic effects were produced for comparable degrees of glycoside or low extracellular potassium-induced sodium pump inhibition and increases in cellular sodium content, sodium pump inhibition rather than a glycoside-specific change in calcium binding appears to underlie the inotropic response. These findings are further consistent with the view that the primary mechanism of the positive inotropic effects of digitalis and low extracellular potassium in this experimental preparation is sodium pump inhibition resulting in increased intracellular sodium. We suggest that increased calcium influx via sodium-calcium exchange is the principal mechanism whereby increased intracellular sodium results in enhanced calcium availability to the myofibrils, but an additional effect on calcium efflux is not excluded.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association