Fiber types and myosin types in human atrial and ventricular myocardium. An anatomical description.
Hybridomas were prepared from mice immunized with myosin from the enlarged left ventricle of a 53-year-old female with an obstructive cardiomyopathy. The specificity of 15 monoclonal antibodies to myosin heavy chains was assessed by the reactivity of muscle extracts and of chymotryptic myosin fragments of different sizes with these antibodies, as determined by the immune replicate technique; some of the monoclonal antibodies cross-reacted only with the ventricular V3-type myosin from hypothyroid rats, whereas the other antibodies cross-reacted both with the latter and with the ventricular V1-type myosins from normal young rats. Immunological heterogeneity of the fibers from human atrial muscles and from human ventricular muscles was detected by some of the antimyosin antibodies by means of indirect immunofluorescence. Histochemical fiber heterogeneity was also detected by adenosine triphosphatase staining of the same tissues. Because of the close correspondence observed between the immunological and histochemical responses of atrial fibers, it has been postulated that at least two distinct types of myosin exist in the human atrium, each myosin form being histochemically related to either alpha- or beta-like ventricular myosin heavy chains. In contrast, there was no direct correspondence between the two experimental approaches in human ventricles, and it is postulated that at least three distinct types of myosin exist within the human ventricles, one V1-type myosin, presumably corresponding to the very rare fibers with an alkaline-stable adenosine triphosphatase activity, and two other V3-type myosins corresponding to immunologically different fibers, each having an alkaline-labile adenosine triphosphatase activity. Monoclonal antibodies that can distinguish among the different myosin variants were further used to provide the basis for an anatomical description of fiber types and myosin types within the human atrial and ventricular myocardium in the whole hearts of two young boys who died sudden violent deaths. Small zones of myosin variation were seen to be scattered, but probably not randomly distributed, within large areas of myocardium in which the cellular distribution of myosin was constant; the large areas had one myosin distribution specific for each cardiac cavity. No clear-cut conclusions can yet be made concerning the physiological role of the regional variations observed in the distribution of the different molecular forms of myosin.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association