Rapid recovery of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors after isoproterenol-induced "down"-regulation.
Desensitization of beta-receptor-linked adenylate cyclase occurs after prolonged occupancy of the beta-receptors by their agonists. We have followed the development and recovery from "down"-regulation of beta-receptors in enzymatically dissociated cardiac myocytes by using the hydrophilic antagonist [3H]-CGP-12177 to identify surface-bound beta-receptors. After in vitro incubation with (-)-isoproterenol, almost 50% of the beta-receptors are lost within 10 minutes. Isoproterenol-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation by isolated myocytes was also decreased after a 15-minute preincubation with isoproterenol. "Lost" beta-receptors can, however, be recovered when isoproterenol-pretreated, washed cardiac myocytes are incubated at 37 degrees C, 85 +/- 7% of the lost beta-receptors have returned to the cell surface after 20 minutes of incubation. The requirements for such recycling were investigated. Receptor recovery does not depend on de novo protein synthesis, since it is unaffected by prior exposure to cycloheximide. It is, however, dependent on cellular energy, because it is prevented by adenosine triphosphate depletion and involves a lysosomal step since it is inhibited by the lysomotropic agent, chloroquine. In addition, the Golgi apparatus and the microtubules are involved in the beta-receptor recycling to the cell surface, as evidenced by the inhibitory effects of monensin and colchicine, respectively. The mechanism of isoproterenol-induced down-regulation of cardiac beta-receptors involves a rapid, reversible cycling to and from the cytosol and the cell membrane. This intracellular receptor traffic is energy dependent, requires several structures, including lysosomes and microtubules, and may be modified by pathological processes involving the heart.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association