Mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.
The mechanisms by which adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin cause relaxation of vascular smooth muscle were investigated. Relaxation of the rat thoracic aorta with adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and/or trypsin was associated with increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. Thrombin and trypsin did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, whereas adenosine triphosphate increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels after significant relaxation occurred. Removal of the endothelium abolished adenosine triphosphate-, thrombin-, and trypsin-induced relaxation and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. Relaxation due to these agents was also inhibited by exposure to nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, and eicosatetraynoic acid, a lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, potentiated relaxation to these agents, whereas the increased levels of cyclic nucleotides due to adenosine triphosphate were unaltered. Bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, decreased relaxation due to adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin and the associated increased levels of cyclic nucleotides. Removal of extracellular calcium, which also presumably inhibits phospholipase A2, prevented the elevated levels of cyclic nucleotides and the inhibitory effects of adenosine triphosphate and trypsin on contraction. In contrast, sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation and/or increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate were unaltered by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, eicosatetraynoic acid, bromophenacyl bromide, and removal of extracellular calcium. After incubation of intact tissue with 32P-orthophosphate, the patterns of protein phosphorylation caused by adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin were indistinguishable from those of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo cyclic guanosine monophosphate. All these agents dephosphorylated myosin light chain. Thus, the present study supports the hypothesis that relaxation induced by adenosine triphosphate, thrombin, and trypsin is mediated through the formation of an endothelial factor which elevates cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and causes cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin light chain.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association