Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperploidy in the Goldblatt hypertensive rat.
Our major objective in this study was to examine the hypothesis that the aortic smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperploidy observed in previous studies of spontaneously hypertensive rats is not peculiar to that model, but also occurs in Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by a Goldblatt procedure (two-kidney, one-clip model). Flow microfluorometric and microdensitometric analysis of smooth muscle cell DNA content showed a significant increase in the frequency of tetraploid smooth muscle cells from 5.6 +/- 0.9% in controls to 14.6 +/- 1.94% in hypertensives 1 month after Goldblatt surgery. Neither differences in ploidy nor elevation in blood pressure were apparent 2 weeks after surgery. The frequency of polyploid smooth muscle cells increased with age, duration of hypertension, and level of blood pressure. Analysis of the interrelationship between smooth muscle cell ploidy and hypertrophy in 5-month post-surgery Goldblatts by cytospectrophotometric measurements of the protein and DNA content of individual smooth muscle cells showed that tetraploid and octaploid cells from Goldblatt rats had 64% and 129% greater protein mass, respectively, than diploid cells. In addition, the mean protein mass of smooth muscle cells from Goldblatts was approximately 100% greater than that of normotensive controls, with each of the ploidy classes in Goldblatts having a higher frequency and mass than the corresponding cells in controls. Estimates of cell number per centimeter aortic length, based on measurements of average DNA/cell and total aortic medial DNA, showed no difference between hypertensives and controls. Furthermore, the rate of accumulation of polyploid cells could account for the increased frequency of cells undergoing DNA synthesis as measured by [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Thus, smooth muscle cell hypertrophy, not hyperplasia, was responsible for the increased mass of smooth muscle in aortas of Goldblatt hypertensive rats compared with normotensive controls, and this smooth muscle cell hypertrophy was accompanied by an increase in DNA ploidy.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association