Role of endothelial cell cytoskeleton in control of endothelial permeability.
Increased permeability of the pulmonary microvasculature is felt to cause acute noncardiogenic lung edema, and histological studies of edematous lungs show gaps between apparently healthy endothelial cells. To determine whether alterations in endothelial cell cytoskeletons would alter endothelial permeability, we exposed monolayers of pulmonary artery endothelial cells grown on micropore filters to cytochalasin B or D. Cytochalasin exposed monolayers demonstrated a 2- to 3-fold increase in endothelial permeability that was readily reversible by washing the monolayers free of cytochalasins. Parallel phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated retraction of cell cytoplasm and disruption of bundles of microfilaments in cytochalasin exposed cells. These changes also were readily reversed after washing the cells free from cytochalasins. To test the relevance of these findings to an in situ microvasculature, we added cytochalasin B to the perfusate of isolated rabbit lungs and observed that cytochalasin B caused a high permeability lung edema. These studies suggest that endothelial cell cytoskeletons may be important determinants of endothelial permeability.
- Copyright © 1982 by American Heart Association