The effects of variations in conductivity and geometrical parameters on the electrocardiogram, using an eccentric spheres model.
The effects of variations in the volume conductor properties of the torso on the electrocardiogram were studied by means of a theoretical eccentric spheres model. The model includes a blood cavity, cardiac muscle layer, pericardium, lung region, skeletal muscle layer, and subcutaneous fat. The source of the field is a double-layer spherical cap located within the myocardium. The following effects regarding the electrocardiogram (ECG) potentials were determined: (1) blood augments the potential, but less than predicted by simpler published models; (2) in anemia, high potentials are expected, whereas in polycythemia, voltages are reduced; (3) abnormally low lung conductivity (emphysema) causes low surface potentials whose magnitude is controlled by the low conductivity skeletal muscle layer; (4) low voltages result both from low and high pericardial conductivities; (5) the surface potential increases with increasing myocardial conductivity; (6) low skeletal muscle conductivity (Pompe's disease) causes high surface potentials; (7) obesity lowers the potential only slightly; (8) a thick myocardium, protruding into the lung region, slightly augments the potential; (9) an increase in the thickness of the myocardium at the expense of the blood cavity causes a decrease in potential; (10) the potential increases with increasing heart size; and (11) the location of the heart within the torso has a very significant effect on the surface potential distribution.
- Copyright © 1979 by American Heart Association