Failure of renin suppression by angiotensin II in hypertension.
Angiotensin II was infused at rates varying from 0.1 to 10 ng/kg per minute into 49 subjects with hypertension and 26 normotensive subjects and changes in blood pressure, plasma angiotensin II, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined after 20 and 30 minutes at each dose. Similar dose-related increases in angiotensin II and blood pressure occurred with a threshold of 1 ng/kg per minute in the normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Whereas angiotensin II induced a significant, dose-related decrement in renin activity in the normotensive subjects, with a threshold of 1.0 ng/kg per minute, no significant change in renin activity occurred in either the normal-renin or high-renin hypertensive subjects. In a separate study, nine normotensive and six hypertensive sodium-restricted subjects were given a converting enzyme inhibitor, SQ 20881, 30 microgram/kg. Despite a significantly greater fall in blood pressure (P less than 0.006) and angiotensin II concentration (P less than 0.045) in the hypertensive subjects, they did not have a greater rise in plasma renin activity. We conclude that angiotensin II reduces renin release in normal man at infusion rates that yield plasma angiotensin II levels within the physiological range but has a strikingly reduced influence on renin release in hypertension. In high-renin hypertension due to renal artery stenosis or nephrosclerosis, renin release is presumed to be relatively autonomous because of a dominant, intrarenal mechanism. The mechanism in normal-renin essential hypertension is not clear, but the abnormality could well be related to the pathogenesis of the hypertension.
- Copyright © 1978 by American Heart Association