Input impedance of the systemic circulation in man.
To determine the systemic input impedance, pulsatile pressure and flow were measured in the ascending aorta in 16 human subjects who were undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Blood flow was measured with a catheter-tip electromagnetic velocity meter, and pressure with an external transducer connected with the fluid-filled lumen of the catheter. Five subjects were found to have no evidence of cardiovascular disease (group A, mean age 32 +/- 2 years, mean aortic pressure 97 +/- 4 mm Hg). Seven had clinical and angiographic signs of coronary arterial disease, and mean pressures less than 100 mm Hg (group B, mean age 48 +/- 2 years). Four subjects had signs of coronary disease and mean pressures greater than 100 mm Hg (group C, mean age 48 +/- 3 years). The frequency spectra of impedance were qualitatively similar in all three groups and resembled those previously observed in the canine aorta. Characteristic impedance was lower in the normal subjects (group A, average 53 dyn sec cm-5) than in the subjects with coronary artery disease (groups B and C, average 129 dyn sec cm-5). Among the subjects with coronary disease, characteristic impedance was higher in the hypertensive subjects (group C, average 202 dyn sec cm-5) than in those with lower mean pressures (group B, average 95 dyn sec cm-5). External left ventricular work per unit time (hydraulic power) averaged 1715 milliwatts (mW) in group A, 1120 mW in group B, and 2372 mW in group C. Cardiac outputs were within normal limits in all subjects, but tended to be lower in group B than in group C. These results suggest that the subjects of group C were better able to meet the increased energy demands imposed by an abnormally high aortic input impedance. Further investigation is needed to learn whether the high impedances in subjects with coronary disease represent an increase with age and transmural pressure alone, or whether some additional factor is involved. The data on relatively normal subjects permit a tentative definition of the normal limits for aortic input impedance in man: 26-80 dyn sec cm-5.
- Copyright © 1977 by American Heart Association