Separation of primary and secondary cardiovascular events in systemic anaphylaxis.
The purpose of this investigation was to differentiate primary cardiac participation in systemic anaphylaxis from a cardiac reaction secondary to respiratory distress. Hemocyaninsensitized guinea pigs were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and artifically ventilated. The chest was opened and the left ventricle cannulated. The electrocardiogram, bronchial resistance, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular pressure and its first derivative were recorded. Following intravenous administration of antigen, the sinus rate increased by about 50-60 beats/min, left ventricular dP/dt increased by a factor of 3, and mean arterial pressure doubled. Conduction disturbances occurred in all of the experiments and ventricular fibrillation in four of six. These changes were concomitant with a 4-fold rise in bronchial resistance. To separate the cardiac and respiratory components, antigen was administered directly into the left ventricle to expose the heart to antigen before the lungs. The intracardiac challenge resulted in increases in sinus rate and left ventricular and arterial pressure quantitatively similar to changes recorded from guinea pigs after the intravenous challenge. However, all these changes preceded the rise in bronchial resistance by 60 seconds. Arrhythmias occurred as frequently as with the intravenous challenge. Our findings show that by use of an appropriate route for administration of antigen, cardiovascular and respiratory components of systemic anaphylaxis can be separated. Our data also indicate that anaphylactic cardiovascular changes can be dissociated temporally into two sets of events: an initial primary cardiac reaction caused by intracardiac release of histamine and a subsequent cardiovascular reaction secondary to systemic release of mediator.
- Copyright © 1977 by American Heart Association