The response of canine coronary vascular resistance to local alterations in coronary arterial P CO2.
The effect of hypercapnia on coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was studied in seven open-chest dogs. Coronary blood flow was supplied to the cannulated left main coronary artery from the femoral artery by a precision pump. Coronary arterial PCO2 was locally controlled with a small membrane oxygenator in the coronary perfusion circuit. Each PCO2 change was made at a constant coronary flow, and CVR was calculated from the ratio of perfusion pressure to flow. Coronary sinus (CS) PCO2 and PO2 were recorded continuously from blood withdrawn through a CS catheter. Normocapnia (PCO2 = 42.3 +/- 2.8 mm Hg) was obtained with a membrane oxygenator gas composition of 95% O2-5% CO2, and hypocapnia was produced with 100% O2-0% CO2. In addition to physiology normal coronary flow (determined by a CS PO2 of 20-30 mm Hg) relatively high and low flow states were studied. At a normal control CS PO2, a decrease in coronary arterial PCO2 from 42.3 +/- 2.8 to 23.8 +/- 1.3 mm Hg caused CVR to increase by 84.2%, from 1.27 +/- 0.06 to 2.30 +/- 0.04 units. Since pH was inversely related to PCO2, the effect on CVR may have been mediated through a pH change. CS PCO2 decreased from 65.2 +/- 1.9 to 39.4 +/- 1.3 mm Hg. myocardial oxygen consumption was unchanged. Increases in CVR of 74.5, 119.5, and 69.3% occurred during hypocapnia in three additional experiments in which control arterial PO2 was maintained at 52-90 mm Hg. When CS PO2 was greater than 30 mm Hg, the normocapnic CVR was high, and was only minimally increased by hypocapnia. When coronary flow was reduced to an ischemic level there was little response in CVR to hypocapnia. Thus the level of arterial PCO2 can have an important effect on CVR independent of changes in O2 consumption. Myocardial PCO2, derived from metabolically produced CO2 and contributed to by arterial CO2, may be a major factor in normal control of coronary flow.
- Copyright © 1976 by American Heart Association