Abnormalities of renal perfusion and the renal pressor system in dogs with chronic aortic coarctation.
To clarify the role of the renin-angiotensin system in coarctation hypertension, 2-year-old inbred dogs with chronic neonatally induced thoracic aortic coarctation were subjected to 6 days of rigorous salt restriction. The following parameters were then measured: glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, plasma renin activity, plasma renin concentration, renin reactivity, and renin substrate concentration. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were significantly lower in salt-restricted coarcted dogs: 3.0 +/- 0.2 and 9.0 +/- 1.5 ml/min kg-1, respectively, compared with values of 4.0 +/- 0.2 (P less than 0.005) and 13.2 +/- 0.6 (P less than 0.025) ml/min kg-1 in salt-restricted controls. Plasma renin activity was abnormally high in experimental dogs: 13.5 +/- 2.5 vs. 4.5 +/- 1.5 ng angiotensin I/ml hour-1 in controls (P less than 0.005). In addition, a significant elevation of renin reactivity (indicating a relative increase in circulating accelerators or a relative decrease in inhibitors of the renin reaction) was apparent in the plasma of coarcted dogs. Plasma renin concentration was elevated but to an insignificant degree in coarcted dogs, and renin substrate concentration was comparable with that of controls. The impaired renal perfusion and abnormal elevation of plasma renin activity during salt restriction is analogous to clinical and experimental observations in hypertensive states associated with total renal underperfusion and supports a major role for the renal pressor system in the pathogenesis of coarctation hypertension. The insignificant elevation of plasma renin concentration is not incompatible with this view. The demonstration of increased renin reactivity in coarctation hypertension provides additional evidence that acceleration of the renin reaction is common to all hypertensive states.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association