Pathogenesis of acute renal failure following temporary renal ischemia in the rat.
In this study, we characterized the sequence of several intrarenal events and evaluated their relative importance in the pathogenesis of unilateral oliguric acute renal failure induced experimentally in rats by complete occlusion of a renal artery for 1 hour. Kidneys were studied prior to occlusion and 1-3 hours and 22-26 hours after release of the temporary occlusion. Renal blood flow measured by an electromagnetic flow transducer was reduced to 40-50% of control during both postocclusion periods. Flow of tubular fluid was markedly reduced, and the damaged kidneys were oliguric. Proximal and distal convolutions were filled with fluid and dilated 1-3 hours after occlusion; their pressures were greatly heterogeneous and were elevated, on the average, to 31 and 16 mm Hg, respectively. Glomerular capillary pressure at this time was normal or slightly increased. Histological sections showed extensive tubular obstruction. We conclude that initially the oliguria is primarily due to intraluminal obstruction in the absence of predominant increases in preglomerular vascular resistance. Observations at 22-26 hours after occlusion indicated acute tubular necrosis. Moreover, the combined involvement of preglomerular vasoconstriction, presisting tubular obstruction, and passive backflow of tubular fluid appeared to be important in the maintenance of the oliguria. Glomerular capillary, proximal intratubular, and peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressures were reduced below control values. After acute volume expansion, the reduced pressures and renal blood flow were reversed, yet the experimental kidneys remained oliguric. Thus, it is clear that tubular obstruction is a significant factor responsible for both the genesis and the maintenance of oliguria in this experimental model of ischemia-induced acute renal failure.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association