Precordial and epicardial surface potentials during Myocardial ischemia in the pig. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the TQ and ST segments.
The solid angle theorem was used to analyze the relationships between TQ and ST segment deflections recorded from precordial and epicardial locations and the time course, size, shape, and transmural location of the ischemic process in the ventricular myocardium. Mathematical predictions were compared with experimental data from the intact heart. Precordial electrograms obtained in anesthetized close-chest pigs were compared with epicardial electrograms recorded directly from the heart's surface. Various areas of ischemia were produced by occluding large and small coronary artery branches, and the resultant changes in ischemic shape were delineated with Thioflavin S injections and postmortem ultraviolet photography. Formally derived equations and cumulative experimental data were in close agreement, suggesting that in the ischemic ventricle (1) TQ depression always accompanies ST elevation, (2) TQ and ST segment changes in magnitude and polarity are complex functions of ischemic size, shape, and transmural location; (3) precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) ST segment elevation is directly related to ischemic size; and (4) epicardial ECG ST segment elevation is inversely related to ischemic size. It is thus concluded that precordial and epicardial ECG TQ and ST segment deflections are complex functions of ischemic geometry and that their accurate interpretation with respect to ischemic size and shape and in the presence of pharmacological interventions is often difficult and may be misleading.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association