Fulminating arterial hypertension with pulmonary edema from release of adrenomedullary catecholamines after lesions of the anterior hypothalamus in the rat.
Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the anterior hypothalamus in unrestrained rats resulted in the development, within 2 hours, of arterial hypertension, tachycardia, hyperthermia, and increased locomotor activity, often leading to pulmonary edema and death. Similar lesions in paralyzed, artificially ventilated rats produced comparable changes in arterial blood pressure and body temperature with a similar time course. The arterial hypertension was a consequence of an increase in total peripheral resistance to 15% of control with a reduction in cardiac output to 49% of control. Arterial hypertension, elevated peripheral resistance, and diminished cardiac output were reversed toward normal by alpha-receptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg/kg, iv). Bilateral adrenalectomy, adrenal demedullation, or adrenal denervation performed prior to lesion placement prevented the development of arterial hypertension and pulmonary edema as well as the changes in peripheral resistance, cardiac output, and body temperature. We conclude that arterial hypertension following lesions of the anterior hypothalamus is due to a neurally mediated increase in peripheral resistance initiated by the release of adrenal medullary catecholamines and that pulmonary edema is due to myocardial failure secondary to the ensuing ventricular overload. Structures originating in or passing through the anterior hypothalamus may exert selective control over the adrenal medulla independent of vasomotor neurons.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association