Blood pressure regulation in end-stage renal disease and anephric man.
The hemodynamic pattern of response to bilateral nephrectomy was studied in 29 patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis. Four patterns of hemodynamic response were seen. In 12 patients with nonmalignant hypertension, bilateral nephrectomy reduced blood pressure and total peripheral resistance with no effects on cardiac output. In 5 patients with malignant hypertension, bilateral nephrectomy reduced blood pressure, increased cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance more markedly. In these two groups, at equivalent levels of total exchangeable sodium, before and after bilateral nephrectomy, mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance were invaribly lower in the absence of renal tissue. In 3 additional patients with nonmalignant hypertension, the decrease in blood pressure after bilateral nephrectomy was delayed from 3 to 12 weeks. When this occurred spontaneously, it was accompanied by a decrease in total peripheral resistance. The fourth hemodynamic pattern was seen in 6 normotensive patients with end-stage renal disease. After bilateral nephrectomy, there were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure, total peripheral resistance, or cardiac output. Salt and water loading failed to elevate blood pressure significantly. Renal transplantation was performed in 3 hypertensive patients before removal of the end-stage kidney. The functioning renal homograft did not result in normal blood pressure as long as the end-stage kidneys remained in place. Removal of the end-stage kidneys significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance. In the anephric state, a sharp difference was seen in blood pressure response to salt and water loading between previously normotensive and previously hypertensive patients. Previously hypertensive patients responded with a progressive increase in blood pressure that reached hypertensive levels. Previously normotensive patients failed to elevate their blood pressure significantly. It is concluded that the vasopressor function of the kidney is the most important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension of end-state renal disease. Expansion of body fluid plays a role, but elevates the blood pressure only in patients who were previously hypertensive. The antihypertensive function of the kidney does not appear to be a major factor in the regulation of blood pressure in end-stage renal disease.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association