A one-dimensional viscoelastic model of cat heart muscle studied by small length perturbations during isometric contraction.
To develop a model of heart muscle, we studied cat papillary muscle contracting in a quasi-isometric condition under a fixed inotropic state. The properties of resting muscle were determined by using a step stretch of less than 1.2% of Lmax for initial lengths from 85 to 100% Lmax. The passive force response suggested the model of the passive branch (Fig. 1). All five parameters were small at muscle lengths below 95% of Lmax but increased markedly at longer lengths. The properties of contracting muscle were studied with a sinusoidal length change (amplitude less than 0.15% of Lmax, frequency 0.1-35.0 Hz). The frequency response of active (total minus passive) stiffness suggested the model of the active branch (Fig. 1). We determined the dependency of the elastic elements (K, Ks) and the viscous element (C) on length and time by recording the frequency response at various combinations of length and time Ks varied linearly with active force (FA). K and C exhibited time courses that paralleled FA up to 0.6tmax, and they maintained their values until 1.4tmax. K then fell toward zero, whereas C exhibited a secondary rise before it fell toward zero. K was dependent of length up to 95% of Lmax and then began to decline, but C varied in proportion to muscle length.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association