Hypothermic arrest and potassium arrest: metabolic and myocardial protection during elective cardiac arrest.
Hypothermic arrest, potassium arrest, and ischemic arrest, either singly or in combination, with or without coronary perfusion were studied in an isolated perfused rat heart preparation. Procedures that permitted the maintenance of high cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate during arrest, e.g., coronary perfusion with hypothermic solutions or solutions containing 16.0 mM potassium, produced a fully reversible arrest with complete cardiac recovery. Cardiac arrest and coronary flow were related to the degree of hypothermia and the concentration of potassium in the coronary perfusate, and the minimum conditions required to induce complete cardiac arrest were ascertained. The effects of hypothermia and potassium were additive; total cardiac arrest could be obtained by combining small evaluations of potassium with moderate hypothermia. Under these conditions, cellular high-energy phosphates were maintained, and complete recovery was possible. Under conditions in which arrest was obtained without maintaing coronary perfusion, e.g., ischemic arrest, cellular high-energy phosphates declined rapidly, and the hearts exhibited poor recoveries. Some protection could be afforded to the ischemic myocardium by topical hypothermia or by combining the ischemia with potassium arrest. In both instances, ATP and creatine phosphate were maintained at higher levels, and improved recoveries were observed.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association