Dobutamine: development of a new catecholamine to selectively increase cardiac contractility.
We systematically modified isoproterenol's chemical structure to reduce chronotropic, arrhythmogenic, and vascular side effects. Experiments on dogs showed that the resulting drug, dobutamine, had an inotropic efficacy as great as that of epinephrine due to a direct action on beta1 cardiac receptors. However, unlike epinephrine, dobutamine's effect on alpha and beta2 vascular receptors was slight. At equivalent inotropic doses, dobutamine had less than a fourth of the chronotropic effect of isoproterenol. Desmethylimipramine (DMI), which blocks the sympathetic nerve fiber uptake mechanism, had no effect on dobutamine's actions. In contrast, DMI antagonized dopamine's inotropic effect, and marked chronotropic and pressor responses occurred when we used doses of dopamine large enough to elicit a direct inotropic effect. Dobutamine increased the contractility of isolated cat papillary muscles more but the automaticity less than did isoproterenol. In ischemic dog hearts, dobutamine lacked significant arrhythmic activity, whereas dopamine, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol caused severe ectopic activity. In dogs with experimentally induced low cardiac contractility, low cardiac output, and hypotension, dobutamine produced dose-related increases in cardiac contractility and output, restored arterial blood pressure, and reduced total peripheral resistance slightly. In contrast, isoproterenol failed to restore blood pressure, had only a meager effect on cardiac contractility and output, cuased extreme tachycardia, and lowered peripheral resistance more than did dobutamine. Norepinephrine, which did not increase cardiac contractility or output as much as dobutamine, excessively elevated peripheral resistance and arterial blood pressure.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association