Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation on Cardiac Performance, Oxygen Consumption, and Coronary Blood Flow in Dogs
The effect of intra-aortic Counterpulsation (IACP) with a balloon upon myocardial oxygen consumption (MV·o2), coronary blood flow (TCF), and left ventricular performance was studied in 23 anesthetized canine right heart bypass preparations at constant heart rate and cardiac output. In nonhypotensive, nonTCF-limited preparations, IACP produced a fall in left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVP) and a decrease in MV·o2 (-1.1 ± 0.2 (SE) ml/min/100 g LV). In these animals there was little steady state change in TCF (-5.6±5.9 ml/min), secondary to autoregulation by the coronary vascular bed. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) fell if elevated but exhibited little change if initially normal.
However, in hypotensive preparations, in which left ventricular performance was substantially limited by a decreased TCF, IACP produced a striking increase in TCF (+40.9 ± 8.6 ml/min) accompanied by an increase in MV·o2 (+1.2±0.3 ml/min/100 g LV). Elevated LVEDPs fell substantially toward normal. Directionally similar changes in LVEDP could be produced by increasing TCF alone in the absence of balloon pumping. When TCF was maintained constant in the hypotensive, TCF-limited preparation, IACP produced a fall in peak LVP and LVEDP.
These data document two effects of intra-aortic balloon Counterpulsation upon cardiac dynamics: (1) IACP can decrease left ventricular peak systolic pressure and LVEDP independent of changes in coronary flow; (2) a major effect of IACP in the hypotensive, failing, TCF-limited preparation is to improve cardiac performance by increasing TCF with an associated increase in MV·o2.
- Received November 10, 1969.
- Accepted April 29, 1970.
- © 1970 American Heart Association, Inc.