Epidemiologic and Genetic Studies of Congenital Heart Disease in the Dog
The prevalence rate for cardiovascular malformations in dogs presented to a large university veterinary clinic was 6.8 per 1000. Patent ductus arteriosus, as in man, was found predominantly in females. Breed-specific prevalence rates were significantly greater in purebred dogs than in mongrels, and the breed distributions of patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, persistent right aortic arch, and tetralogy of Fallot were significantly different than would be expected if all breeds were equally susceptible to each type of malformation. On the basis of these observations, two hypotheses were made: (1) Genetic factors are determinants of certain types of congenital heart disease in the dog. (2) These genetic factors have specific effects on cardiac morphogenesis, resulting in specific types of cardiovascular malformations. Preliminary genetic studies confirmed the specific hereditary transmission of valvular pulmonic stenosis in beagles, persistent right aortic arch in German shepherds, and conal septal defects (including ventricular septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot) in keeshonden. The pattern of inheritance of these defects was not consistent with any simple genetic hypothesis. Patent ductus arteriosus in dogs of poodle ancestry and fibrous subaortic stenosis in Newfoundlands were shown provisionally to be transmitted in a manner consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. The significance of these findings is considered in relation to present and future understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital heart disease.
- animal models
- genetic isolate
- aneurysm of membranous interventricular septum
- cytogenetic studies
- persistent left cranial vena cava
- randomized environment
- lesion specificity
- Accepted May 14, 1968.
- © 1968 American Heart Association, Inc.