Production of Hypertension and Vascular Disease by Kidney Extracts
Hypertension was induced in rats by constricting the aorta between the origins of the renal arteries. The left kidney, which became ischemic and atrophic ("endocrine kidney"), caused a malignant type of hypertension associated with weight loss, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension, cardiac necrosis, nephrosclerosis of the right kidney, and arteritis. Amounts of pressor substances were increased in the left kidney and decreased in the right as compared with those in kidneys of normal rats.
Aqueous extracts of ischemic kidneys, of kidneys contralateral to ischemic kidneys and of normal kidneys were prepared and the supernatant solutions were injected subcutaneously into test rats which had been uninephrectomized a few hours previously. Extracts of ischemic kidneys caused hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, weight loss, and renal and vascular lesions mimicking the signs which result from renal ischemia. The extracts from the other kidneys were inactive. Administration of renin in doses roughly equivalent in pressor activity to the extracts of ischemic kidneys caused a rise in pressure, diuresis, and proteinuria but no lesions when given subcutaneously.
It is proposed as a working hypothesis that renal hypertensive disease results not only from increased secretion of renin and formation of angiotensin but from simultaneous release from kidneys with reduced perfusion pressure of a substance which augments the enzymatic formation of angiotensin. This substance is presumably absent from normal kidneys and from semipurified renin preparations.
- Received July 24, 1963.
- © 1964 American Heart Association, Inc.