Plasma Biomarkers of Inflammation and Angiogenesis Predict Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Symptomatic Hemorrhage or Lesional GrowthNovelty and Significance
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Rationale: The clinical course of cerebral cavernous malformations is highly unpredictable, with few cross-sectional studies correlating proinflammatory genotypes and plasma biomarkers with prior disease severity.
Objective: We hypothesize that a panel of 24 candidate plasma biomarkers, with a reported role in the physiopathology of cerebral cavernous malformations, may predict subsequent clinically relevant disease activity.
Methods and Results: Plasma biomarkers were assessed in nonfasting peripheral venous blood collected from consecutive cerebral cavernous malformation subjects followed for 1 year after initial sample collection. A first cohort (N=49) was used to define the best model of biomarker level combinations to predict a subsequent symptomatic lesional hemorrhagic expansion within a year after the blood sample. We generated the receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve for each biomarker individually and each weighted linear combination of relevant biomarkers. The best model to predict lesional activity was selected as that minimizing the Akaike information criterion. In this cohort, 11 subjects experienced symptomatic lesional hemorrhagic expansion (5 bleeds and 10 lesional growths) within a year after the blood draw. Subjects had lower soluble CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14; P=0.05), IL (interleukin)-6 (P=0.04), and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor; P=0.0003) levels along with higher plasma levels of IL-1β (P=0.008) and soluble ROBO4 (roundabout guidance receptor 4; P=0.03). Among the 31 weighted linear combinations of these 5 biomarkers, the best model (with the lowest Akaike information criterion value, 25.3) was the weighted linear combination including soluble CD14, IL-1β, VEGF, and soluble ROBO4, predicting a symptomatic hemorrhagic expansion with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 88% (area under the curve, 0.90; P<0.0001). We then validated our best model in the second sequential independent cohort (N=28).
Conclusions: This is the first study reporting a predictive association between plasma biomarkers and subsequent cerebral cavernous malformation disease clinical activity. This may be applied in clinical prognostication and stratification of cases in clinical trials.
- Received January 5, 2018.
- Revision received April 25, 2018.
- Accepted April 30, 2018.
- © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.