Abstract 296: Targeting Macrophage Subsets Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction Following Experimental Myocarditis in Rat
Introduction: The mechanism of myocarditis is complex and poorly understood. Monocytes and macrophages comprise the majority of infiltrates in myocarditis.
Hypothesis: We aimed to test the hypothesis that macrophage subsets have a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of myocarditis, and that targeting macrophages would modulate disease progression and outcome.
Methods and Results: Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was induced in 67 male Lewis rats. Of them, 27 were sacrificed at different time points to assess M1 and M2- macrophage subsets by flow cytometry. The remaining rats were randomized either to early macrophage depletion (from day 8-14 after EAM induction), by intravenous injections of clodronate-liposomes (CL), or late depletion (from day 15-35 after induction of EAM), or PBS-liposome injections (control). Left ventricula (LV) remodeling and function were assessed by echocardiography; before induction of EAM, before CL treatment, and 35 days after induction of EAM. Macrophages in the heart peaked at 21 days after induction of EAM (25±7%,p=0.0008).The number of M1 macrophages in the heart was highest at 14 days after EAM induction (16.3±2%), while M2 macrophages peaked at day 21 (15.5±2.7%,p=0.003). Early macrophage depletion (8-14d) decreased LV diastolic dimension and volume by 5.3±3.9% and 10.4±8% (p=0.04). Late macrophage depletion (15-35d) increased LV wall thickness and decreased LV systolic dimension and volume by 10.2±4% and 21±8% (p=0.03). Furthermore, late macrophage depletion increased LV ejection fraction and fractional shortening by 14.6±6% (p=0.01) and 22±10% (p=0.02) 35 days after EAM.
Conclusions: Our study describes, for the first time, the kinetics of M1 and M2 macrophages in ocarditis and shows that macrophages contribute to the progression of adverse remodeling and dysfunction. Thus, targeting macrophages could be a new therapeutic strategy to improve cardiac remodeling and function in myocarditis.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.