Abstract 242: Bone-derived Stem Cells Repair The Heart After Myocardial Infarction Through Transdifferentiation And Paracrine Signaling Mechanisms
Rationale: Autologous bone marrow- or cardiac-derived stem cell therapy for heart disease has demonstrated safety and efficacy in clinical trials but has only offered limited functional improvements. Finding the optimal stem cell type best suited for cardiac regeneration remains a key goal toward improving clinical outcomes.
Objective: To determine the mechanism by which novel bone-derived stem cells support the injured heart.
Methods and Results: Cortical bone stem cells (CBSCs) were isolated from EGFP+ transgenic mice and were shown to express c-kit and Sca-1 as well as 8 paracrine factors involved in cardioprotection, angiogenesis and stem cell function. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice underwent sham operation (n=21) or myocardial infarction (MI) with injection of CBSCs (n=57) or saline (n=59). Cardiac function was monitored using echocardiography with strain analysis. EGFP+ stem cells in vivo were shown to express only 2/8 factors tested (basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor) and this expression was associated with increased neovascularization of the infarct border zone. CBSC therapy improved survival, cardiac function, attenuated adverse remodeling, and decreased infarct size relative to saline-treated MI controls. By 6 weeks post-MI, EGFP+ cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells could be identified on histology. Isolated EGFP+ myocytes were smaller, more frequently mononucleated, and demonstrated fractional shortening and calcium currents indistinguishable from EGFP- myocytes from the same hearts.
Conclusions: CBSCs improve survival, cardiac function, and attenuate remodeling by 1) secreting the proangiogenic factors bFGF and VEGF (stimulating endogenous neovascularization), and 2) differentiating into functional adult myocytes and vascular cells.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.