Abstract 234: Defining Domains In The Transcription Factor Grainyhead-like 3 Required For Protective Functions In The Endothelium
Important aspects during aging of human endothelial cells (EC) are an increased apoptosis level and a reduced migratory capacity. In a screening for anti-apoptotic genes we have identified the transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) and demonstrated its anti-apoptotic and pro-migratory effects after overexpression and knockdown in EC. To define the domains in GRHL3 responsible for these - potentially also extranuclear - functions we have cloned large scale deletion mutants and mutants with deletions of putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) and analyzed them for their intracellular localization and functional properties.
Immunostaining of transfected EC were used to examine the subcellular distribution. Two mutants with deletions in a bioinformatically predicted bipartite NLS were localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. To corroborate these data, lysates of the cells were fractionated biochemically. Western blotting confirmed the immunostaining data, indicating that we have identified the major NLS in GRHL3.
To analyze the transcriptional properties of these mutants, we constructed a GRHL3-specific luciferase reporter containing a tandem GRHL3 binding sites in front of a minimal promoter and cotransfected it with expression vectors for the GRHL3 deletion mutants. Besides the previously described activation domain we identified another region required for transcriptional upregulation of target genes in the N-terminal half of the protein.
We will now use these mutants to further dissect the regions in GRHL3 necessary for its pro-migratory and anti-apoptotic activities in endothelial cells. This will also allow us to investigate if all of these functions are mediated solely by the activation of target genes or by other mechanisms coupled to a non-nuclear function of GRHL3.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.