Abstract 042: Radiation-Associated Cardiovascular Risks for Future Deep-Space Missions
During the future Moon and Mars missions astronauts will be exposed to space radiation (IR) for extended time. The effect of cosmic IR during and after space flights on cardiovascular (CV) system is unknown. Nine-month old C57BL/6N male mice were IR once with proton 50 cGy or 56Fe 15 cGy, both at 1 GeV/nucleon. We evaluated IR-induced biological responses - underlying molecular mechanisms, calcium handling, signal transduction and gene expression. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements.
Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was increased in 56Fe mice 1 and 3 months post-IR (p<0.001). One month post-IR, compared to control, proton- and 56Fe-IR sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) (p<0.007) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA2a, p<0.02) were both increased more than 200% and p-p38 was decreased 400% (p<0.05), suggesting activation of compensatory mechanisms in [Ca2+]i handling in these hearts.
By 3 months, compared to control, proton- and 56Fe-IR hearts SERCA2a and p-Creb1 was decreased 200-500% (p<0.02), suggesting reduced capacity in intracellular [Ca2+]i handling, suggesting that [Ca2+]i handling dysfunction combined with LVEDP increase in 56Fe-IR may be due to prolonged activation of compensatory mechanisms that lead to changes in SERCA2a and p-Creb1 levels.
By 10 months, compared to control, LVESP was decreased in proton- and 56Fe-IR (p<0.03), suggesting IR-associated decrease in contractile function. However, compared to age-matched controls (18 months), the LVEDP was increased (p<0.05) and dP/dt Min was decreased (p<0.02) in proton-IR but not 56Fe-IR mice. This data suggests that after 10 months proton- but not 56Fe-IR affects considerably contractile and relaxation functions during aging.
Our longitudinal 1, 3 and 10 months studies reveal that a single full body low dose proton- and 56Fe-IR have long-lasting negative effect on heart homeostasis during aging. The divergent effects of low dose proton vs. 56Fe-IR on heart function during aging suggest significantly different biological mechanisms responsible for this ion-dependent dichotomy over 10 months post-IR and necessitate further studies into underlying molecular mechanisms.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.