Abstract 18: Synoviolin, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Modulates Cardiac Myocyte Size and Restores Heart Function in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, which governs the balance of the proteome. In addition to secreted and membrane proteins, proteins bound for many other cellular locations are also made on ER-bound ribosomes, emphasizing the importance of protein quality and quantity control in the ER. Unlike cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligases studied in the heart, synoviolin/Hrd1, which has not been studied in the heart, is an ER transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase, which we found to be upregulated upon protein misfolding in cardiac myocytes. Given the strategic location of synoviolin in the ER membrane, we addressed the hypothesis that synoviolin is critical for regulating the balance of the proteome, and accordingly, myocyte size. We showed that in vitro, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of synoviolin decreased cardiac myocyte size and protein synthesis, but unlike atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases, synoviolin did not increase global protein degradation. Furthermore, targeted gene therapy using adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) showed that overexpression of synoviolin in the left ventricle attenuated maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and preserved cardiac function in mice subjected to trans-aortic constriction (AAV9-control TAC = 22.5 ± 6.2% decrease in EF vs. AAV9-synoviolin TAC at 6 weeks post TAC; P<0.001), and decreased mTOR activity. Since calcium is a major regulator of cardiac myocyte size, we examined the effects of synoviolin gain- or loss-of-function, using AAV9-synoviolin, or an miRNA designed to knock down synoviolin, respectively. While synoviolin gain-of-function did not affect calcium handling in isolated adult myocytes, synoviolin loss-of-function increased calcium transient amplitude (P<0.01), prolonged spark duration (P<0.001), and increased spark width (P<0.001). Spark frequency and amplitude were unaltered upon synoviolin gain- or loss-of-function. Whereas SR calcium load was unaltered by synoviolin loss-of-function, SERCA-mediated calcium removal was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, our studies suggest that in the heart, synoviolin is 1) a critical component of proteostasis, 2) a novel determinant of cardiac myocyte size, and 3) necessary for proper calcium handling.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.