Abstract 157: Metabolomic Profiling of AMP-Signaling Stress: Effects of Metformin on Wild Type and Adenylate Kinase AK1-/- Transgenic Mice
Metabolic drugs frequently target mitochondrial functions and AMP signaling. Metformin, one of the most prescribed anti-diabetic medications, exerts its glucose lowering effect through mild interference with mitochondrial energy metabolism triggering homeostatic adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed AMP and downstream AMPK signaling. However, metabolomic signature of drug-induced “therapeutic mitochondrial toxicity" and energetic imbalance-induced AMP signaling are poorly understood. This work was aimed to determine metabolomic representation of metformin-induced mitochondrial and AMP signaling stress by comparing wild type and AK1-deficient mice with compromised AMP-signaling. Metabolomic profiling of plasma and urine samples from wild type mice treated with metformin revealed distinct metabolic signature suggesting altered energy, Krebs cycle, lipid and ketone body metabolism, with higher levels of creatinine, malate, α-ketoglutarate, FFA, glycerol, glycerol-3-phosphate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and hypoxanthine. Contrary to expectations glucose lowering effect of metformin was greater in energetically and AMP-signaling compromised AK1-/- mice. Metformin action on AK1 deficient mice was characterized by increased levels of creatinine, lactate, alanine, FFA, phosphoserine, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, malate and α-ketoglutarate indicating broader alterations in energy, glycolytic, Krebs cycle, ketone body, lipid and amino acid metabolism. At baseline, livers from AK1-/- mice had higher AMP/ADP and pAMPKα/AMPKα ratios compared to wild type. There were no significant sustained changes in global nucleotide ratios after metformin treatment. Overall metabolomic profile of AK1-/- mice indicate larger disturbances in energetic and substrate metabolic networks after metformin treatment compared to wild type. Thus, this study revealed specific metabolomic signatures of metformin therapeutic action and mitochondrial toxicity indicating that genetic and metabolic background modulate individual response to metformin treatment.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.