Abstract P136: E2F2/4 Regulated by Serine 21 Phosphorylation of GSK-3α Play Compensatory Roles During Pressure Overload
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with two isoforms, alpha and beta, which have distinct functions in cardiomyocytes (CMs). GSK-3alpha is phosphorylated at S21 during pressure overload (PO), and inhibition of S21 phosphorylation in GSK-3alpha S21A knock-in (alpha−KI) mice promotes hypertrophy and heart failure in response to PO, accompanied by decreases in the total number of CMs in the heart. Since GSK-3alpha downregulates cyclinD1 in the nucleus, GSK-3alpha may negatively regulate E2F-mediated transcription. Reporter gene assays showed that the transcriptional activity of E2F was increased by GSK-3alpha knockdown (1.75 fold, p<0.05). To evaluate the role of E2F isoforms in regulating cardiac hypertrophy and function during PO, E2F1−/−, E2F2−/+, E2F4−/+, and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Left ventricular (LV) weight/ tibial length (LVW/TL) was significantly greater and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly decreased in both E2F2−/+ and E2F4−/+ after 2 weeks of TAC (LVW/TL: E2F2−/+=7.1±0.3, E2F4−/+=7.0±0.4, WT=5.9±0.3, p<0.05 vs. WT; LVEF: E2F2−/+=53±1%, E2F4−/+=61±2%, WT=75±1%, p<0.05 vs. WT). Thus, downregulation of either E2F2 or E2F4 induced a phenotype similar to that of alpha−KI in response to TAC. To examine the causative role of E2F2/E2F4 downregulation in mediating the cardiac phenotype in alpha-KI mice, adenovirus (Ad) harboring either E2F2 or E2F4 was injected into alpha-KI hearts. Rescue with E2F2 or E2F4 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy (LVW/TL: alpha−KI+E2F2=7.1±0.4, alpha−KI+E2F4=7.3±0.3, alpha−KI+LacZ=8.7±0.4, p<0.05 vs. alpha−KI+LacZ) and improved LV dysfunction (LVEF: alpha−KI+E2F2=66±3%, alpha−KI+E2F4=60±2%, alpha−KI+LacZ=39±2%, p<0.05 vs. alpha−KI+LacZ) in alpha−KI mice under PO conditions. Injection of either Ad-E2F2 or Ad-E2F4, but not of Ad-LacZ, significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive myocytes in the alpha-KI mice (alpha-KI+LacZ =0.7±0.3%, alpha-KI+E2F2=10.4±2.3%, alpha-KI+E2F4=9.2±1.5%, p<0.05 vs. alpha-KI+LacZ). These results suggest that maintaining the activity of E2F2 and E2F4 through S21 phosphorylation of GSK-3alpha plays an essential role in preserving cardiac function during PO.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.