Abstract P007: Cardiomyocyte Damage-Released Extracellular S100A1 Protein Promotes Regeneration of Infarcted Myocardium by Modulating Cardiac Fibroblast Function
Background: Similar to heart muscle-specific creatinkinase (CK-MB), S100A1 protein is released from damaged human cardiomyocytes in response to myocardial infarction (MI). Since S100A1-knock out (SKO) mice display rapid post-MI onset of adverse myocardial remodeling and accelerated transition to heart failure, we assessed the hypothesis that ischemia-related release of S100A1 protein modulates myocardial regeneration.
Methods and Results: After LAD ligation in C57/B6 mice, S100A1 serum levels peaked at 10 µg/ml 8 hours post-MI, precisely mirroring the time course previously observed in MI patients. RT-PCR analyses in post-MI whole heart samples revealed significantly lower I-CAM (−50%) and IL-10 (−75%) mRNA abundance as well as heightened Collagen-1 (+40%) and VEGF (+80%) expression in SKO vs. WT mice (p<0.05, n=6 in each group). Interestingly, injection of an S100A1-neutralizing antibody prior to MI in WT mice mimicked the abnormalities observed in post-ischemic SKO animals. To further elucidate extracellular S100A1 biological activity, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts (CF), endothelial and smooth muscle cells were exposed to S100A1 in vitro. A rapid internalization of S100A1 was exclusively found in CF, resulting in a phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 with subsequent activation of NF-kappaB as assessed by Western Blot (WB) and EMSA. RT-PCR and WB analyses revealed significant alterations in CF gene expression in response to S100A1, including an increase in I-CAM (3,5-fold) and IL-10 (20-fold) mRNA levels and diminished Col-1 (−80%) expression. Similar effects were observed after direct injection of S100A1 protein into the left ventricular apical region of WT mice in vivo (S100A1- vs. PBS-injection, n=6). In SKO mice, intraperitoneal application of S100A1 prior to MI largely normalized the adverse gene expression pattern towards WT animals.
Conclusions: Our study provides first evidence for cardiomyocyte damage-released S100A1 to act as an endogenous mediator of post-MI inflammation and tissue repair. Considering today's unability to manipulate these molecular mechanisms, extracellular S100A1 might represent a promising target for future therapies of MI.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.