Regulation of Coronary Arterial BK Channels by Caveolae-Mediated Angiotensin II Signaling in Diabetes Mellitus
Rationale: The large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel, a key determinant of vascular tone, is regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor signaling. Upregulation of Ang II functions and downregulation of BK channel activities have been reported in diabetic vessels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Ang II-mediated BK channel modulation, especially in diabetes mellitus, have not been thoroughly examined.
Objectives: The aim in this study was to determine whether caveolae-targeting facilitates BK channel dysfunction in diabetic vessels.
Methods and Results: Using patch clamp techniques and molecular biological approaches, we found that BK channels, Ang II type 1 receptor, Gαq/11 (G protein q/11 α subunit), nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases (NOX-1), and c-Src kinases (c-Src) were colocalized in the caveolae of rat arterial smooth muscle cells and the integrity of caveolae in smooth muscle cells was critical for Ang II-mediated BK channel regulation. Most importantly, membrane microdomain targeting of these proteins was upregulated in the caveolae of streptozotocin-induced rat diabetic vessels, leading to enhanced Ang II-induced redox-mediated BK channel modification and causing BK channel and coronary dysfunction. The absence of caveolae abolished the effects of Ang II on vascular BK channel activity and preserved BK channel function in diabetes.
Conclusions: These results identified a molecular scheme of receptor/enzyme/channel/caveolae microdomain complex that facilitates the development of vascular BK channel dysfunction in diabetes.
Diabetic vascular complications account for a 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke, causing more than 200 000 deaths per year in the United States. Diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome have a significant increase in mortality resulting from poor microcirculation and vascular dysfunction.1 The large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is an important determinant of vascular tone. Activation of vascular BK channel hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), closes the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and produces vasorelaxation. However, BK channel function is impaired in diabetes mellitus because of oxidative stress in the vascular wall with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and peroxynitrite (OONO−),2,3 accompanied by a decrease in the production and bioavailability of vasodilators including nitric oxide and prostaglandin.4,5 NAD(P)H oxidase activity is thought to be the major source of generation in vascular SMCs.6,7 Vascular NAD(P)H oxidases are structurally different from those in phagocytic cells, and the nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs) include NOX-1, NOX-4, p22phox, NOXO1 (or p47phox), NOXA1 (or p67phox), and Rac-1 subunits.8 In vessels from patients with diabetes, expression and activity of NOXs are significantly increased, whereas those of antioxidant enzymes are reduced.9,10 Hence, a misbalance between ROS generation and scavenging represents a fundamental mechanism underlying the development of intracellular oxidative stress in diabetes.
Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a key role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through binding to the type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptors. AT1R is a G protein-coupled receptor, activating Gαq and Gβγ. The Gαq-mediated phospholipase C/inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate/Ca2+ signaling activates protein kinase (PK)C and is a primary mechanism through which Ang II exerts its physiological and pathological effects.11,12 In addition, Gβγ activates c-Src kinase (c-Src), which in turn activates c-Abl tyrosine kinase, causes tyrosine 14 phosphorylation of caveolin (cav)-1, and facilities the AT1R translocation into caveolae.13,14 Because c-Src is also activated by ROS, these steps result in a self-perpetuated activation loop promoting sustained ROS generation in response to Ang II stimulation. Interestingly, NOX-1 is localized in the caveolae of SMCs15 and activation of AT1R by Ang II is accompanied by receptor translocation into the caveolae of vascular SMCs.16 The physiological importance of NOX-1 is underscored by studies using NOX-1 knockout (KO) mice, which lack Ang II-induced ROS generation and have reduced blood pressure.14,17
Caveolae are unique flask-shaped, non-clathrin-coated plasma membrane microdomains, 50 to 100 nm in diameter, and are characterized by their signature structural protein cav.18,19 Cav-1 is the primary isoform in vascular SMCs. The N terminus of cav-1 (residues 1 to 101) contains an important functional structure: the caveolin scaffolding domain (residues 82 to 101), which is essential for membrane binding and for interaction with signaling proteins that contain the caveolin binding motifs (ΦXXXXΦXXΦ and ΦXΦXXXXΦ, where Φ represents an aromatic amino acid and X is any amino acid), including those of AT1R signaling proteins13 and BK channels.20,21 However, the functional role of caveolae targeting for BK channel regulation is unknown, especially in diabetic vessels.
In this study, we hypothesized that caveolae/Ang II signaling complexes may play an important role in the ROS-associated BK channel modulation, including cysteine oxidation, tyrosine nitration, and tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to vascular BK channel dysfunction in diabetes. We found that BK channels, AT1R, Gαq/11 (G protein q/11 α subunit), c-Src, and NOX-1 were physically associated in caveolae and the integrity of caveolae in SMCs was critical for mediating the regulation of BK channel function by Ang II. In addition, cav-1 expression was upregulated in the vasculature of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by increased physical association between BK channels and AT1R signaling complex, resulting in enhanced AT1R-mediated oxidative modification and dysfunction of BK channels. These results highlight the critical role of caveolae in the inhibition of BK channel function by Ang II, which leads to abnormal vascular function in diabetes.
An expanded Methods section is available in the Online Data Supplement at http://circres.ahajournals.org.
Type 1 Diabetic Animal Development and Vascular SMC Isolation
Diabetic rats and mice were produced by STZ injection. Handling and care of animals, as well as animal procedures, were approved by the Institutional Animal Care the Use Committee (Mayo Clinic).
SMCs from rat coronary arteries and mouse aortas were enzymatically isolated as previously reported.22
Whole-cell K+ currents were recorded using standard patch-clamp techniques,22 and BK currents were defined as the 0.1 μmol/L iberiotoxin (IBTX)-sensitive component.
Measurement of Coronary Ring Tension
Rat coronary left anterior descending artery was used for contraction and relaxation experiments.
Sucrose Gradient Density Centrifugation
The cellular distribution of cav-1 in rat aortas was determined by sucrose density gradient fractionation as previously described.21 Ten fractions of 1.2 mL each were collected and analyzed by Western blotting.
Cav-1 Knockdown by Small Interfering RNA
Cav-1 in SMCs was knocked down using human cav-1 small interfering (si)RNA as previously described.20
Coimmunoprecipitation and Immunoblotting
Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were performed as described previously.2,23
Type 1 Diabetic Animals
Eight weeks after the development of hyperglycemia, blood glucose was significantly increased and body weight was significantly reduced in diabetic animals (see expanded Results section in the Online Data Supplement).
Regulation of Vascular BK Channels by Ang II and Caveolae Targeting
We first examined the effects of Ang II on BK channel activities in coronary arterial SMCs from control rats. K+ currents were continuously recorded at baseline and after superfusion with Ang II (2 μmol/L) and IBTX (0.1 μmol/L). Ang II produced significant inhibition of K+ currents, and this effect was reversible on washout (Figure 1A). BK currents were obtained by subtracting the IBTX-insensitive K+ components from total K+ currents, and the BK current-voltage (I-V) relationships (holding potential, −60 mV; testing potentials [TP], from −40 mV to +160 mV) before and after exposure to Ang II are shown in Figure 1B. Ang II suppressed BK currents by 50.3% in control rats, from 272.3±26.6 pA/pF at baseline to 135.2±14.2 pA/pF (TP=+150 mV, n=7, P<0.05 versus baseline).
The effect of Ang II on BK channel function was confirmed by outside-out single BK channel recordings (Online Figure I). Extracellular application of 2 μmol/L Ang II resulted in 49.4% reduction in channel open probability, from 0.45±0.06 at baseline to 0.23±0.03 with Ang II (P<0.05, n=4).
To determine the role of caveolae in Ang II signal transduction, we examined the effects of cav-1 knockdown in rat coronary arterial SMCs using siRNA on BK channel inhibition by Ang II. Figure 1C shows the protein expression of cav-1 in coronary arterial SMCs 48 hours after transfection with cav-1 siRNA at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nmol/L, and control siRNA at 100 nmol/L. Cav-1 siRNA at 40 nmol/L or higher significantly suppressed cav-1 expression by 80% to 90%, compared with control siRNA. Figure 1D shows the time course of whole-cell K+ currents in rat coronary arterial SMCs 48 hours after transfection with 100 nmol/L cav-1 siRNA or 100 nmol/L control siRNA, in response to 2 μmol/L Ang II and 0.1 μmol/L IBTX. Ang II suppressed BK currents in cells with control siRNA transfection but failed to inhibit BK currents in cells with cav-1 siRNA transfection. Instead, a small increase in BK currents was noted. Group data (n=6) are shown in Figure 1E.
Impaired Vascular BK Channels and Coronary Vasoreactivity in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
To determine the role of AT1R-mediated BK channel regulation in diabetic vessels, we examined the effects of Ang II on BK currents in coronary arterial SMCs from STZ-induced diabetic rats. Whole-cell K+ currents were 61.5±10.6 pA/pF at baseline (TP=+150 mV, n=8, P<0.05, versus control baseline) and 61.2±15.7 pA/pF with 2 μmol/L Ang II (n=8, P=NS versus diabetic baseline), indicating the loss of Ang II effect on vascular BK currents in diabetes. Representative tracings and the BK channel I-V curves before and after exposure to Ang II are shown in Figure 2A. Very little BK currents were present in diabetic coronary arterial SMCs, and Ang II effects were absent, indicating marked vascular BK channel dysfunction in diabetes.
To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, the effects of Ang II and NS-1619 (BK channel specific activator) on the contraction/relaxation of coronary rings from control and STZ-induced diabetic rats were measured. We found that in diabetic rats, coronary constriction by Ang II (2 μmol/L) and by IBTX (0.1 μmol/L) was reduced by 76.6% and 46.2%, respectively, whereas NS-1619-mediated coronary relaxation was reduced by 59.0% (Figure 2B). These results suggest that BK channel-mediated coronary vasoreactivity was abnormal in diabetes.
Colocalization of BK Channels, AT1R, Gαq/11, NOX-1, and c-Src in the Caveolae of Vascular SMCs
To better understand the molecular mechanism whereby caveolae-targeting modulates BK channel activity, we determined the cellular distribution of BK channels, AT1R, Gαq/11, NOX-1, and c-Src in vessels from control and STZ-induced diabetic rats by sucrose density gradient fractionation. Because the BK channels in aortic SMCs and coronary arterial SMCs showed similar abnormalities in STZ-induced diabetic rats (Online Figure II), we used the aorta for further biochemical characterization. Figure 3A and 3B shows immunoblots of the cell lysates and the fractions (1 to 10, with 1 being the lightest and 10 the heaviest) of control and diabetic rat aortas, respectively, blotted against anti-cav-1, anti-BK channel, anti-c-Src, anti-NOX-1, anti-Gαq/11, and anti-AT1R antibodies. BK channels, NOX-1, Gαq/11, and c-Src were detected in the low buoyant density, caveolae-rich fractions of control and diabetic rat aortas. In contrast, very little AT1R was detected in the caveolae-rich fractions of both control and diabetic rats under baseline condition. However, aortas obtained from animals after treatment with Ang II showed that AT1R was readily detected in the low buoyant density fractions, suggesting receptor translocation into caveolae on agonist activation, similar to previous reports.16 Analysis of the distribution of AT1R in the membrane fractions showed that it was very different between control and STZ-induced diabetic rats after Ang II treatment. In control rats, only 28.5% of the total AT1R was in the low buoyant density fractions (fractions 1 to 6), whereas 83.4% of the total AT1R was found in the low buoyant density fractions of STZ-induced diabetic rats (Figure 3C). These results suggest that caveolae targeting of AT1R is enhanced in diabetic vessels.
Inhibition of BK Channel Activity by Ang II-Induced Posttranslational Modulation
We proceeded to determine the roles of PKC, NOX-1, and c-Src on the Ang II-mediated development of BK channel dysfunction. We found that after a 1-hour incubation with the membrane permeable PKC peptide inhibitor (50 μmol/L), BK currents in coronary arterial SMCs were no longer suppressed by Ang II. BK current densities were 229.9±67.5 pA/pF at baseline and 274.8±64.5 pA/pF (TP=+150 mV, n=10, P=NS versus baseline) after exposure to 2 μmol/L Ang II (Figure 4A). Similarly, a 1-hour pretreatment with the c-Src inhibitor lavendustin A (LavA) (10 μmol/L) or with the NOX-1 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (20 μmol/L) abolished the Ang II effects on BK channel activity. After pretreatment with LavA, BK current densities were 210.1±58.8 pA/pF at baseline versus 249.0±67.2 pA/pF (n=11, P=NS versus baseline) with Ang II (Figure 4B). After pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium, BK currents were 180.7±31.3 pA/pF at baseline versus 182.0±42.3 pA/pF (TP=+150 mV, n=8, P=NS) with Ang II (Figure 4C). In contrast, pretreatment with 10 μmol/L lavendustin B (the negative control of LavA) did not inhibit the Ang II effects (data not shown). Hence, these results suggest that Ang II inhibits BK channels through PKC-, c-Src-, and NOX-mediated mechanisms.
Comparison of BK Channel AT1R and Cav-1 Expression in the Aortas Between Normal and STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
We determined the expression of BK channels, AT1R, and cav-1 in diabetic vessels. Figure 5A shows the immunoblot of aortic homogenates from control and diabetic rats against anti-BK channel, anti-AT1R, and anti-cav-1 antibodies, as well as anti-β-actin antibodies as loading control. There was no significant difference in BK channel and AT1R expression between control and diabetic rats, but cav-1 expression was increased by 3.1±0.2-fold (n=3, P<0.05 versus control) in diabetic rats. These results suggest that reduction of BK channel activity in diabetic vessels was not attributable to downregulation of channel expression but was associated with altered channel function in the presence of increased caveolae abundance.
Enhanced Caveolae Targeting of BK Channels, AT1R, NOX-1, and c-Src and Oxidative Modification of BK Channels in Diabetic Vessels
Figure 5B shows results from 2 representative pairs of control and STZ-induced diabetic rat aorta homogenates, in which immunoprecipitates with anti-cav-1 antibody were analyzed for the presence of BK channels, c-Src, and NOX-1. Cav-1-associated BK channels, AT1R, c-Src, and NOX-1 were significantly increased in diabetic rats, by 1.9±0.2 (n=4), 2.6±0.4 (n=3), 2.1±0.4 (n=3), and 1.6±0.1 fold (n=3), respectively, compared to control rats.
Because ROS are prominent products of AT1R signaling and the machinery for producing oxidative modulation are in the vicinity of BK channels in caveolae of SMCs, we examined the potential consequence of the augmented caveolae-mediated association between BK channels and the AT1R signaling cascade in diabetes by determining BK channel oxidative modification. We found that in diabetic vessels, there was a 3.3±0.4-fold (n=3, P<0.05 versus control) increase in the BK channel tyrosine nitration (Figure 5C) and a 2.1±0.3-fold (n=4, P<0.05 versus control) increase in BK channel tyrosine phosphorylation (Figure 5D). These results suggest that the enhanced caveolae-targeting of BK channels and AT1R signaling molecules in diabetic vessels may underlie the enhanced BK channel protein posttranslational oxidative modification, accounting for the molecular mechanisms of BK channelopathy in diabetes.
Preserved BK Channel Activity in Cav-1 KO Diabetic Mice
To determine the role of caveolae on BK channel function in control and diabetes, we used cav-1 KO mice for further studies. Figure 6A and 6B show the time course and representative tracings of K+ currents in aortic SMCs from nondiabetic wild-type (WT) and KO mice at baseline, after exposure to Ang II and to IBTX, and on washout of chemicals. The I-V curves of BK currents before and after the application of 2 μmol/L Ang II are illustrated in Figure 6C. Ang II produced 50% inhibition of BK currents in WT mice, whereas there was no Ang II effect in cav-1 KO mice. The results are similar to those from rat coronary arterial SMCs after cav-1 siRNA treatment. In diabetic WT mice, vascular BK channels showed very little response to Ang II (Figure 7). The current density was 27.2±6.9 pA/pF at baseline and was 26.8±12.8 pA/pF after exposure to 2 μmol/L Ang II (TP=+150 mV, n=9, P=NS versus baseline). In diabetic cav-1 KO mice, BK channels were also insensitive to Ang II; BK current density was 155.5±28.3 pA/pF at baseline (TP=+150 mV, n=9, P<0.05 versus WT) and 133.1±30.7 pA/pF after Ang II treatment (TP=+150 mV, n=9, P=NS versus baseline). These results indicate that in diabetes, there was profound loss of vascular BK channel activity with no further suppression by Ang II. However, in KO mice, vascular BK channel function is preserved in diabetes because the absence of caveolae spared the channels from Ang II-mediated inactivation.
In this study, we have provided compelling evidence on the critical role of caveolae in mediating the inhibition of vascular BK channels by Ang II. First, we have shown that BK channels and the AT1R signaling cascade, including Gαq/11, c-Src, and NOX-1, are colocalized in the caveolae of vascular SMCs. Ang II inhibits BK channel function through activation of its downstream pathways. Second, Ang II loses its effects on BK channel function with lack of caveolae by cav-1 knockdown using siRNA in vascular SMCs and by cav-1 gene ablation in cav-1 KO mice. Third, coronary arterial BK channel activity and coronary vasoreactivity are impaired in STZ-induced diabetic rats. With the development of diabetes, cav-1 expression is upregulated, and this is accompanied by increased oxidative modification of BK channels by tyrosine phosphorylation and tyrosine nitration. Fourth, the absence of caveolae preserves BK channel function in diabetes. These results indicate that vascular BK channel functions are importantly modulated by Ang II/AT1R signaling and caveolae targeting is critical in facilitating the Ang II/AT1R-mediated effects (Figure 8). BK channel function is significantly compromised by the heightened Ang II/AT1R/caveolae oxidative stress signaling in diabetes.
Caveolae have emerged as important membrane microdomains where signal transduction mechanisms are facilitated because a wide variety of signaling molecules are found to reside in caveolae of vascular SMCs, including BK channels and AT1R signaling proteins. However, the functional consequence of caveolae targeting and the molecular mechanisms of caveolae-mediated modulation of vascular BK channel function are unclear. In cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, BK channels are quiescent but can be activated on isoproterenol stimulation or by dissolution of caveolae using β-cyclodextrin.20 Based on BK current measurements in inside-out macropatches with similar pipette resistance (assuming that each one has a similar surface area of pipette tip), Alioua et al21 reported that cav-1 affects Slo surface expression. Specifically, coexpression with cav-1 in HEK293 cells reduced Slo currents (in nA*MΩ) by 70%, whereas the channel sensitivity to voltage- and Ca2+ was unaltered. Further deletion of the YNMLCFGIY caveolin binding motif in Slo abolished channel surface expression. Using whole-cell recording technique, however, we did not find any difference in IBTX-sensitive K+ currents (in pA/pF) in SMCs between WT and cav-1 KO mice. These results suggest that the mechanism of BK channel modulation by cav-1 in native vascular SMCs may be different from those in heterologous expression systems.
A key finding in this study is that caveolae integrity is crucial for AT1R-mediated BK channel regulation. Inhibition of BK channels by Ang II was abolished in rat coronary SMCs with cav-1 knockdown and in aortic SMCs of cav-1 KO mice. Our finding that targeting of AT1R to vascular caveolae requires agonist stimulation suggests the presence of an elegant balance and control mechanism that precludes nonspecific incidental activation of AT1R signaling cascade, consistent with previous observations.16 Furthermore, our finding that BK channels and AT1R signaling proteins are colocalized in the caveolae of SMCs, as demonstrated by sucrose density gradient fractionation, confocal imaging analysis (Online Figure III), and coimmunoprecipitation with cav-1, carries physiological significance; as such, an organization brings BK channels to the vicinity and in close proximity to c-Src, PKC, and NOX-1, which are downstream effectors of AT1R signaling. Stimulation of AT1R by Ang II activates 2 major downstream pathways, with activation of c-Src and PKC, which would lead to activation of NOXs. NOX-1 and NOX-4 are the major NOX isoforms in human coronary arterial SMCs, and they have distinct subcellular distributions with NOX-1 localized in caveolae and NOX-4 in the cytoplasm.15 Most importantly, we found a 3.1-fold increase in cav-1 expression in diabetic rat aortas, similar to previous report.24 Furthermore, on Ang II stimulation, 83.4% of the total AT1R moved to the low buoyant density fractions in diabetic rats, compared to 28.5% in control rats. Such cellular remodeling has contributed a 1.6- to 2.6-fold increase in the abundance of BK channels, AT1R, NOX-1, and c-Src in caveolae.
Ang II-mediated effects are dependent on ROS generation and the renin-angiotensin system is activated in diabetes.25 Yoshimoto et al26 reported that a 2-hour incubation with 10 μmol/L Ang II produced a significant increase in ROS generation and NOX-1 expression in SMCs of rat aortas. We have confirmed that production of intracellular ROS in cultured human coronary SMCs is significantly reduced after treatment with a NOX inhibitor, but not with a mitochondrial electron transport complexes II inhibitor (Online Figure IV). Moreover, incubation with 2 μmol/L Ang II significantly increases ROS generation in freshly isolated aortic SMCs of WT mice, but not cav-1 KO mice (Online Figure V). These results suggest that in arterial SMCs, caveolae-associated NOX-1 constitutes the major source of intracellular generation in response to AT1R stimulation. However, the elevated activities of the AT1R signaling cascade in diabetes and the proximity to ROS generating enzymes has rendered BK channels particularly vulnerable to redox modulation. We have previously reported hSlo expressed in HEK293 cells in the presence of high glucose is susceptible to the inhibitory modulation by H2O2 and OONO−.2 In addition, could further enhance c-Src activity,27 leading to channel tyrosine phosphorylation, and could also react with NO to generate ONOO−, resulting in channel tyrosine nitration.28 Tyrosine phosphorylation and nitration are 2 important mechanisms of protein posttranslational modification. Indeed, there is 2.1- and 3.3-fold increase in BK channel tyrosine phosphorylation and tyrosine nitration, respectively, in STZ-induced diabetic rat arteries. ONOO− is known to directly inhibit BK channel function,2,29 and we found that BK channel activity in coronary arterial SMCs was lost after incubation with 0.1 μmol/L ONOO− for 2 hours (data not shown), a time when protein nitration has reached a maximal effect.28 Incubation with LavA abolished the Ang II effects on BK currents, which is in agreement with the report by Alioua et al.30 With the upregulation of cav-1 expression and increased localization of BK channels and AT1R signaling proteins in the caveolae of diabetic vessels, we believe that Ang II-mediated ROS generation via caveolae-associated NOX-1 activation plays a central role in BK channel regulation. In contrast, the absence of caveolae prevents the deleterious effects of Ang II on BK channel activities in diabetes.
Our study has potential limitations. First, density gradient fractionation and immunoprecipitation experiments require a lot of proteins and these experiments were done using aortas instead of coronary arteries. Second, BK channel activity in WT and cav-1 KO mice was characterized in aortic SMCs. However, we have shown that Ang II/BK channel regulation is the same in SMCs from rat coronaries, rat aortas, and mouse aortas. Hence, we believe the conclusions derived from these experiments are valid as they all bear the same results.
In summary, we have shown that BK channels and AT1R signaling proteins are colocalized in vascular caveolae microdomains and caveolae targeting is critical for mediating the regulation of BK channel function by Ang II. In Figure 8, we present a working model to illustrate that caveolae of vascular SMCs facilitate the assembly of BK channels and AT1R signaling proteins into a molecular complex, leading to increase of BK channel posttranslational modulation. Hence, our results delineated a molecular mechanism through which caveolae microdomain organization facilitates the inhibition of BK channel function in diabetic vessels, which in turn regulates coronary blood flow and may affect the clinical outcome of diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Sources of Funding
This work is supported by American Diabetes Association grant ADA-JFA-07-39 and NIH grants HL74180 and HL080118.
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Novelty and Significance
What Is Known?
Caveolae provide a central platform for signaling transduction, including that of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor signaling (AT1R).
The effects of Ang II are mediated through reactive oxygen species generation.
Vascular large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel activity is impaired in diabetes, contributing to diabetic vascular dysfunction.
What New Information Does This Article Contribute?
BK channels are colocalized with AT1R and its signaling proteins such as protein kinase C, nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-1, and c-Src in the caveolae of vascular smooth muscle cells, forming a channel/receptor/enzyme/caveolae microdomain complex.
Cav-1 expression is upregulated in diabetic vessels with enhanced BK channel/AT1R signaling caveolae targeting, resulting in increased redox-mediated BK channel modification.
Cav-1 gene ablation protects vascular BK channel function in diabetes.
This is the first report that caveolae/Ang II signaling participates in vascular BK channel regulation and facilitates BK channel and coronary dysfunction in diabetes. Our results delineate a fundamental mechanism underlying diabetic vascular dysfunction and may help to establish the BK channels as a therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetic vascular complications.
Original received September 21, 2009; revision received February 3, 2010; accepted February 5, 2010.