Innate Immune Pathway Links Obesity to Insulin Resistance
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See related article, pages 1589–1596
The prevalence of obesity, especially among adolescents, has increased considerably over the past 20 years because of increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. It has been estimated that 20% of the world’s population is overweight and nearly 300 million are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2).1,2 Excess body weight and obesity are associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes, both of which are associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular complications.1,2
Atherothrombotic vascular disease, resulting from a complex interplay between dyslipidemia and vascular immunoinflammatory processes, is responsible for a majority of the excess morbidity and mortality that characterizes metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.1,2 Several studies have shown that obesity is associated with activation of inflammatory pathways and that inflammatory responses are associated with impaired insulin signaling and insulin resistance.3–8 Considerable progress has been made in the last 2 decades in our understanding of molecular events that link obesity to inflammation, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and enhanced vascular disease. Obesity-mediated skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been linked to defects in cellular signaling events triggered by insulin.3–8 In obesity, the skeletal muscle levels of several kinases such as protein kinase C isoforms (PKC), I Kappa B Kinase-β …